In today’s pharmaceutical facilities the availability of purified water is essential.
While the domestic consumer considers tap water to be pure the pharmaceutical end-user regards it as grossly contaminated.
On the other hand, pharmaceutical productions require, in most cases, near-total removal of impurities (criteria dictated by specific standards or local/international regulatory bodies).
Ultra filtration It removes pyrogens, endotoxins, DNA and RNA fragments.
Ultra filtration (UF) is a cross-flow process similar to reverse osmosis.
The membrane rejects particulates, organics, microbes, pyrogens and other contaminants that are too large to pass through the membrane Reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis is the most refined degree of liquid filtration.
It damages DNA and RNA polymerase at low doses preventing replication.
Radiation at shorter wavelengths (185 nm) is effective for the oxidation of organics.
Particulate likes Silt and debris which can be removed by passing water through a 10 to 20 micron filter (or less if necessary)micro organisms, Bacterial agents constitute a real challenge for water purification systems.
Their growth rate, size and robustness require an efficient design (detection, removal from water inlet, inhibition of growth, etc.).
Instead of a filter, it uses a porous material acting as a unidirectional sieve that can separate molecular-sized particlesDistillation Oldest method of purification.
Inexpensive but cannot be used for an on-demand process.
Suspended or dissolved particles, organic compounds, impurities and other contaminants prohibit the usage of tap water in laboratory applications and scientific research.